Geographically, Tehran has a special position. Located at the southern slopes of the Alborz mountains, it has relatively rich resources of water and mild climate. The slopes and valleys of Alborz offer a natural protection against the heat and dryness from southern desserts. Except for salty regions, the southern plains are suitable for agriculture. Considering its geographical situation and its potential for population settlement, Tehran is centrally located, which gives it the advantage of having easy access to all parts of the country. A glance at the geography of Iran and the spatial distribution of population and settlement patterns, it clearly shows this excellent position. Today Tehran faces various bio-environmental problems such as pollutions, that is not because of its poor location but because there is excessive pressure on the resources of the city and whose environmental limitations are violated. In this chapter, first a brief history of Tehran and its administrative divisions is represented, and then certain geographical features of the city are briefly examined.

  Historical geography *
Many ancient settlements dating back to 6000 years ago have been found in the surrounding regions of Tehran such as Cheshme-Ali Gheytariyeh, Darrous and Chizer, but so far no inscription has been found with the name Tehran inscribed on it. However, from the third century AH onward, the name of the city has been mentioned as one of the villages of Rey in association with the names of certain people. From the Muslim geographers of the third century onward, Hamdollah Mostofi (the seventh century AH) is the first to mention Tehran as one of the four sections of Rey. Until the Moghul Invasion, Tehran was still a small village, and as evidenced by historical documents, the villages of Doulab, Tajrish and Vanak were more important than Tehran. In 617, Yaghoot Homavi writes: “Tehran is one of the villages of Rey, with an approximate distance of 6 kilometers. The village is very big and is built underground. No one can gain access to the houses of the villagers except the people of Tehran themselves. The village has 12 neighborhoods and many orchards and prayer halls.” After Mostofi, Muslim geographers repeated what he had written about Tehran. Don Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, a Castilian ambassador at the time of Timurids, is probably the first European to visit Tehran, and refer to it as a city, “unwalled, with many orchards and gardens.” In 961, king Tahmasb, of Safavid dynasty, built a wall around the city, which indicates that until then the city was in the form of fortresses, protected by its underground houses from invasions. The mosques and the tombs of the Shi’i saints survived until the Safavids, such as the tomb of Seyed Esmaeil, the tomb of Yahya and the tomb of Seyed Nasroddin, indicate that the people of Tehran were Shi’i Muslims, hence the construction of bazaars and mosques and schools by the Shi’i king Tahmasb. King Abbas I, the most powerful Safavid king (996-1038) built many buildings inside Tehran, the most important being a palace and a government office.

^ Read More on This Page ^

 

    

In the wake of the Afghans’ rebellion and, at the time of Nader Shah, Tehran found military importance. Nader Shah assumed his son Reza Qoli Mirza to rule Tehran when he attacked India. After he returned from India, he formed a meeting of the clergy of various religious sects and after that historians and writers referred to Tehran as Shahriyar, Rey governance or House of Safety. Karim Khan Zand intended to declare the city as his capital, so he ordered a palace, and a government office to be built in Tehran. For this reason, the writers of the time referred to Tehran as Karim Khan House of Governance, but Karim Khan later moved his government to Shiraz. Tehran finally became the capital of Iran in 1795AD, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city, and began to expand the royal palace and fortresses. Agha Mohammad Khan tried to attract people to Tehran and make it a center of trade. At the time of Fath Ali Shah (1212AH), Agha Mohammamd Shah and his nephew, Tehran began to flourish culturally, socially and economically. All foreign tourists visiting the city in this period seemed to have been overwhelmed by the grandeur of the city. In addition to the palaces, Fath Ali Shah ordered other buildings with social and religious functions to be built in Tehran. Some of these buildings include: Shah or Soltani Mosque, Fakhriyeh or Marvi Mosque and Seminary, Jame Mosque, Fakhroddoleh Mosque, etc. The English William Ously writes in 1226 that Tehran has 60000 population, 30 mosques, 30 public baths and 6 gates. The expansion of Tehran continued at the time of Mohammad Shah and reached its zenith during the rule of Naser-a’din Shah, when the city was declared as Naseri House of Governance.



-------------------------------------
* By: Merit Prof. Mohamad Hassan Ganji

First  Previous  [1]  2  Next  Last   Page 1 of 2

 Table 1-1 Population of Tehran 1956-2006 (Thousand persons)

Tehran city limits (1972)

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (1974)

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (1979) 

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (1984) 

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (1991) 

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (1994) 

Click to view the larger size

 Tehran city limits (1999)

Click to view the larger size

Tehran city limits (2008) 

Click to view the larger size

حق انتشار اطلاعات براى شهردارى تهران محفوظ است 1395 - 1385
Tehran     Terms Of Use    Privacy Statement
X