The greater Tehran consists of three mountainous, piedmont and desert sections.
The mountainous section includes the heights over 1800 meters.
In this section, due to the height and legal restrictions, there is no residence or construction. Thus Tehran has physically developed in the other two sections.
The southern parts of the city have grown along a wide, flat desert.
The city, however, cannot expand along the plain due to the high levels of Ground water and the arid zone.
Nor can the city expand along the northern and eastern heights.
So the city can only expand in the western direction due to its suitable geographical condition. The new residential estates have mostly developed in this direction.
The topographical conditions of the city directly influence the spatial texture of the city, especially in the northern side.
The height difference in certain parts of the city has given it a special beauty.
The view of the city from the north and its mountainous view from the south have been effective in the morphology of the city.
Topographically, the most important issue in Tehran is the direction of relief.
From the south toward the north, the height of land increases, so that the height difference between the low parts reaches 900 meters and the high parts 1800 meters. This difference in height results in a change of weather, better vegetation and beautiful countryside along the north.
As we move from the north to the south, the whole Tehran falls within our view.
As we move from the south to the north, we observe many changes in the natural environmental conditions, property value, access to services and social conditions.
In fact, the geographical slope, as it were, corresponds the social slope.
In other words, the topography of the city is a reflection of its social-geographical topography.

Topography of tehran province (2006)

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Figure 1.1  Longitudinal profile of the routes leading to Tehran

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North-South path

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East-West path

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Tehran-Chalous path

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Damavand-Qom path

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Tehran-Qazvin path

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Tehran-Saveh path
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