- Varjin protected area:
Located on southern of central Alborz mountains adjacent to Tehran.
The altitude range of 1700-3900 m, and mean annual perception and temperature of 700 mm and 5° C, respectively have resulted in warm Mediterranean and temperate sub-humid climate. The exceptionally high animal and plant biodiversity of the area is a characteristic feature of the area is a characteristics feature of region.
577 planet and 162 animal species have been identified in varjin. Some of the main plant species are juniper, willow, ash tree, almond, oxytropis, thyme, rhubarb, mullein, borage, prickly thrift, and different species of Gramineae.
The main animal species of the region include Alborz red sheep, wild goat, leopard, wild boar, hyena, chukar partridge, Caspian snowcock , tawny eagle, transcaucasian meadow viper, Latifi’s viper, brook trout, and lenkoran.
The region plays an important role as a corridor for the animals-especially wid sheep-between central Alborz and Lar national

- Jajrud protected area:
Located on southern slope Alborz Mountain range in Tehran Province, This 55118 ha area was designated protected area in 1982.
The jajrud river flows in this mountainous rolling land whereas the Rudehen river forms the eastern border of the area.
The exceptionally high biodiversity of region is its characteristic feature. The adjacency of the region to Tehran has also given the area pronounced importance. 512 plant and 192 animal species have been identified in the region.
Astragal and wormwood are the dominant plant species of the region.
Other plants include Turk terebinth pistache, juniper, mountain almond, berberry, acanthofyllum, noea, Crataegus melanocarpa, and blue-bottle. The main animal species of the region are Alborz red sheep, leopard, wild goat, goitred gazelle, hyena, wild boar, caracal, cape hare, chukar partridge, see-see partridge, sandgrouse, green-headed duck, teal, hoopoe.
Adjacency to Tehran metropolitan, numerous access roads, high biodiversity, beautiful landscapes, rivers, frequent spring, and the historical monument of ghal-e Dokhtar have paved the way for tourist, scientific and research activities in the region.

- Lar protected area:
Having been protected since 1976 as an national park, this area of 27789 ha was designated protected area in 1982 and declared agin as a national park in 2001.
This park is an indicative example of the mountainous habitats in the western slopes of mount Damavand extending in the two provinces of Mazandaran and Tehran.
The main vegetation cover on the slope is composed of species such as astragal, buttercup, wild iris, poppy, golden ray, succor, thyme and giant fennel, saint john’s wort, ramsons, swallow wort, park leaves, different tulips and Gramineea, shallot and asphodel.
Juniper is the only tree species of the park. The area is considered as a summer habitat for a great number of wildlife species.
159 animal species constitute the wildlife of the park with wild goat, wild sheep, leopard, Eurasian lynx, brown bear, common fox, wolf, cape hare, indian crested porcupine, hyena, Caspian snowcock, chukar partridge, quil, golden eagle, vulture, sandgrouse, Caspian pond turtle, lavantine vlper, horned viper and brook trout as the most important ones.

- Sorkh_e Hesar natinal park:
Considered as one of the oldest game parke of Iran, sork_e Hesar with an area of 9168 ha was designated national park in 1982.
The park has a high biodiversity and exceptional research importance.
Turk terebinth pistache, mountain almond, juniper, berberry , thorn, ash, tamarisk, saxaual, fig, almond, astragal, wormseed, and cotoneaster from the main vegetation body.

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Being a habitat for goitred gazelle, this region is also home to Alborz wild sheep, wild goat, wild boar, leopard, hyena, wild cat, Pallas’s cat, caracal, Eurasian lynx, wolf, Indian crested porcupine, badger, sparrow hawk, goshawk, vulture, stock dove, chukar partridge, see-see partridge, Persian vipor, Lavantine viper, Latifi’s viper and spurthighed tortoise. Vicinity of the park to the metropolis of Tehran, frequent access roads and high biodiversity have resulted in the attraction of tourists and researchers.

- Alborz_e Markazy protected area:
Covering extents of Tehran and Mazandaran province, this 398853 ha region was designated protected area in 1976 thanks to its high biodiversity, various biomes and eye-catching landscapes. The region constitutes tow distinct northern and southern slope. The humid northern slope is predominantly covered with dense hyrcanian forests. 1100 plant and 264 animal species have been identified in the region. The main species include beech, hornbeam, chestnut-leaved oax, scotch elm, alder, lime tree, velvet maple, coliseum maple, ironwood, ash tree, box tree, juniper, common birch, walnut, willow, yew, astragale, wormwood, peucedanum petiolare Centaurea elbursensis, tanacetum archibldii,succor, pricky thrift, borage, and different species of Gramineae. Some of the main animal species of the region are red deer, roe deer, brown beer, wild goat, Alborz red sheep, leopard, jungle cat, Eurasian lynx, common fox, wolf, wild boar, jackal, pheasant,Caspian snowcock, chukar partridge, different species of Passeriformes, warblers, birds of pretty, transcaucasian meadow viper, Caucasian pit viper, steppe ribbon snake, kukri snake, southern Caspian kutum, carp, trout, lenkoran and eel.

- Kavir protected area:
Located in the north of Qom salt lake, this region was designated protected area and biosphere reserve in 1964 and 1976, respectively. The region was being protected and national park during the period of 1976-1982. This plain/mountainous area has an area of 248957 ha and covers parts of Semnan, Tehran and Qom provience. The mine water supplied of the area spring and low level wells. The presence of steppe, wetland, kavir and salt land ecosystems has resulted in diverse vegetation sites and animal habitat. 200 animal and 359 plant species have been identified in the region among them 30 species are endemic. Some plant species are saxaul, tamarisk, bean caper, wormseed, poppy, mallow, camelis throrn, summer cypress, almond, wormwood, cotoneaster, cat’s tail, sedge, box thorn, willow-leaved, box thorn, Sophora, goatis is wheat and different saltwort. The main animal species of the area are jebeer gazelle, goitred gazelle, wild goat, cheetach, wild sheep, sand cat, caracal, long-eared hedgehog, stone marten, wolf, fox, indian crested porcupine, houbara bustard, chukar partideg, shirike, warbler, golden eagle, kestrel, magpie, different trushs, wryneck, common been eater.

Natural environment zones of Tehran province (2006)

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General tourism routes of Tehran province (2006)

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Figure 1.11 Azadi Square

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