Until 1927, Tehran depended for drinking water on its many springs and qanats mostly originating in the northern heights. Some of these qanats included: Elahiyeh, Baghshah (Naseriyeh), Bahaolmolk, Nasserolmolk, Baharestan, Sefarat Rusiyeh, Shahak, Beryanak, Pamenar, Rahmatabad, Jalaliyeh, Sefarat Engilis, Karim Abad, Sedghiyeh, Shah, Nezamiyeh, Alaoddoleh, Haj Ali Reza, Mehrgard, Mobarak Abad, Mokhles Abad, Mehsi Abad, Safar Abad, Jamshid Abad, Makhsoos, Shahabolmolk, Najafabad, Sardar, Kosariyeh, Akbar Abad, Yousof Abad, Behjat Abad, Amin Al-Malaki. The most important was the Shah Qanat, which was made by the order of Nasseroddin Shah, and was endowed for public use. This qanat had very healthy water, which was used by people until 1961, when Tehran started its drinking water piping system. In addition to qanats, there were many springs in Tehran whose water was used for drinking and agricultural purposes. The most important springs were the following: A’la Damavand, Ghal’e Dokhtar, Ab Ali Haraz, Voleh in Gachsar, Shah Dasht in Karaj, Ali in Rey, Tizab and Galeh Gileh. In 1927, the construction of Karaj-Tehran canal started. This canal, 53 kilometers long, carried water from Bilghan village in Karaj to Jamshid Abad in Tehran. Twenty kilometers of the canal was covered but the rest was open. The canal carried 1600 liters of water per second, which was transferred to houses or cisterns through ditches. Tehran’s first water piping system started for a population of 900,000; two steel pipes with the capacity of 242000 cubic meters carried water from Bilghan pond to the first Tehran’s water treatment plant in Jalaliyeh in 1952. To control precipitation, studies for the construction of Amir Kabir dam started in 1954 and the construction operation began in 1958 and ended in 1963. As the population increased, and with it the need for more water, Latyan and Lar dams were constructed. However, since the surface water did not meet the needs of the city, the use of subsurface resources started in 1963. Today, a considerable part of the needs of the city, especially the water used for irrigating green spaces, orchards and farms, is supplied by the water from the wells made inside and outside the city.

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Amount of water supplied Based on the figures published by Tehran’s Water and Sewage Company, the amount of water supplied in Tehran province is over 703 million cubic meters, an average of 85 million cubic meters per month. Of this, 71.7% is the surface water and the rest is subsurface water.
Amount of water consumed
In 2006, the population of Tehran was over 13 millions. This population and the fact that most activities are established in Tehran province call for an increasing supply of water. Based on the figures published in 2008, the total water consumed was 980.73 million cubic meters. Of course, the consumption rate depends on the season. The greatest domestic consumption occurs in summer as the weather is hot and plants need more water. The least amount of consumption occurs in April.

Table 1.7 Rate of water consumption in terms of month in a year

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Table 1.8 Rate of water consumption in terms of month in a year

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